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FDA Panel Backs First-in-Class Cholesterol Drug

审校:卷毛凯瑟琳   作者:本站整理   学习指数: ★★★★☆

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fda backs cholesterol

Federal health advisers on Tuesday recommended approval for a highly anticipated cholesterol drug from Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, but with the caveat that more data is needed about its long-term ability to reduce heart attacks.

Although the FDA doesn't consider cost when approving drugs, some say the drugs' projected price tags – $10,000 a year for as long as a patient lives – could dramatically affect healthcare costs, leading to higher premiums.

Like statins, the new drugs, called PCSK9 inhibitors, lower LDL cholesterol, the so-called bad cholesterol, although the two types of drugs work in different ways. While statins are pills, the new drugs would require patients to inject themselves every two to four weeks, much like a diabetic would inject insulin.

cholesterol levels

High levels of LDL cholesterol increase the risk of heart attacks and strokes, said Elliott Antman, president of the American Heart Association. About a third of American adults have high LDL cholesterol, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Statins can reduce LDL by 30% to 50%. PCSK9 inhibitors may be slightly more potent, reducing LDL by 40% to 60%, said Daniel Rader, a professor at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, who has served as an adviser to Sanofi, which makes one of the new drugs. Doctors could prescribe both drugs in tandem to dramatically lower cholesterol.

The new drugs could be used to help people who either can't tolerate statins' side effects, such as muscle pain, or who can't lower their cholesterol enough with statins alone, Antman said. The new drugs also help people with an inherited condition that causes very high LDL levels.

The expert panel recommended by a 13-3 vote that the Food and Drug Administration approve the injectable drug, called Praluent.

But in an unexpected development, a number of panelists said the drug should only be used in patients with abnormally high cholesterol levels caused by an inherited disorder. Those panelists said they wanted to see more data about whether the drug ultimately reduces heart problems, before it is used more broadly.

"I personally fall on the side of having optimism, but I need to see the cardiovascular outcome study to know," said Dr. Philip Sanger of Stanford University, who voted for the drug.

If the FDA follows the group's recommendation, the drug could be approved for a much smaller population than its developers have proposed.

Praluent is part of a new class of injectable drugs that lower cholesterol more than older medications called statins, which have been the standard treatment for more than 20 years. A similar drug from Amgen will go before the same panel on Wednesday.

Both drugs block a substance called PCSK9, which interferes with the liver's ability to remove cholesterol from the blood. Analysts expect the drugs to grow into blockbuster sellers, generating billions of dollars in new sales. But Tuesday's meeting underscores the uncertainty about who should receive such medications.

More than 73 million U.S. adults, or nearly one-third, have high LDL cholesterol, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Those patients have twice the risk of heart disease, the leading cause of death in the U.S.

Paris-based Sanofi and Regeneron, which is based in Tarrytown, New York, have suggested marketing their drug to a large group of patients, including those who are at high-risk for heart attacks and those who cannot tolerate statin drugs due to side effects.

But many panelists said they would limit the drug's use to a much narrower group of patients who have abnormally high cholesterol levels caused by a family disorder.

"I am really only comfortable with the risk-benefit equation in that population," said Michele Orzsa, the panel's consumer representative.

Key to the panel's decision was whether lowering bad, or LDL, cholesterol translates into reduced heart attacks. For over 20 years, the FDA has used reduced LDL levels as a benchmark to approve cholesterol drugs, including statins like Lipitor and Zocor.

But recent studies of drugs like niacin have shown that reducing cholesterol levels does not always lead to reductions in heart attack, stroke and related problems.

The FDA's internal scientists pressed panelists on whether they thought lower LDL cholesterol was still an accurate predictor of a drug's benefit.

"I don't believe we have enough data today to say that LDL, with a new drug class, is sufficient for approval," said Dr. William Hiatt, of the University of Colorado's School of Medicine, who voted against the drug.

Despite the measured endorsement, company representatives said they were "gratified" by the meeting's outcome.

"This is one of the next big milestones for this product and the promise it can deliver to patients," Bill Sasiela, a vice president with Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Regeneron's stock fell about 3 percent in extended trading following the announcement. Sanofi's U.S.-traded shares rose about 1 percent.

what is cholesterol

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